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English: Various descriptions of the interior of Rama are scattered throughout the books that make up the series.
This image was created using descriptions from the original Rendezvous with Rama and its sequel Rama II.
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Review: Hard-working Denver based label Gazeebo International has become a must-check label in recent times, releasing a healthy slew of EPs and launching a sister label.
Here they drop another bumper selection of tunes, this time from producer Avanti.
The tracks that make up Night Flight offer various atmospheric takes on analogue nu-disco, from the deep and bubbling 'Telesforos Journey' and uber-slow 'Much Love' to the sparkling grooves of opener 'Parallel Universe'.
Label bossman Gazeebo reworks the deep 'Nuclear Baby', turning it into a breezy fusion of analogue Italo and waspish deep house.
Review: Further proof of the constant rise of Mexican post-disco or should that be post nu-disco?
With a delightfully slow tempo, rubbery post-punk bass, dubwise effects and crazy industrial funk sax aplenty, it comes on like some kind of long lost early '80s Latin space funk masterpiece.
There's plenty for those of a horizontal persuasion to enjoy, from the low-slung grittiness of 'Take It' and smacked-out post Balearic groovery of 'Final Discourse', to the weird-out guitars and stuttering synth-bass of 'Dead End'.
Review: On previous outings for Gazeebo, Chopshop and others, Kiwi disco boffin DJ Raw Sugar has blurred the boundaries between the humble re-edit and sample-heavy trickery.
Here he offers up a wonderfully atmospheric, slo-mo burner that's more original composition than cheeky scalpel job.
Much contemporary 'slo-mo' music can be infuriatingly rigid; 'Disco Land' is almost the polar opposite.
Label boss Gazeebo stretches out the groove and adds a head-nodding kick on his epic rework, while bonus cut 'I Wanna Give You My Love' swims in the crystal clear waters between elastic disco and comfy deep house.
Review: For their latest sneaky dancefloor assault, serial scalpel bandits Gazeebo look to DJ Raw Sugar for inspiration.
He duly delivers, offering up a tasteful 'Redub' of Marlena Shaw's much-played and much-sampled 'Woman Of The Ghetto'.
It's a subtle transformation, adding some nice electronics and dubby deep house swing to the original groove.
If you dig the Marathon Men material on GAMM, this will be right up your alley.
Hotbox and Gazeebo are also on remix duty; the latter lays down a Balearic-ish interpretation that dispatches with much of the charm of the original, while the former go all touchy-feely deep house with solid results.
Review: Colorado label Gazeebo International has cut a steady path through the dance world over the last few years with their unique blend of erotically charged slo-mo disco.
Label stalwart DJ Steef provides their latest release, which features five slice of quirky leftfield dance.
Review: Canadian disco deviant Gazeebo returns with the third count 'em instalment of his well-respected Adults Only series.
This time round, there's no overdubbed groans, just a heavy dose of contemporary electrofunk that gleefully joins the dots between original synth disco, Italo and noughties nu-disco.
The bottom end is heavy, the beats snappy and the synths authentically vintage.
Orlando-based Whisky Disco man Sleazy McQueen provides the standout remix, upping the tempo and adding some swing to the beats on a swirling, funk-laden nudisco take.
There's also a delightful blast of Italo campness in the form of Zoe's Raygun Remix - the most markedly different of all the included revisions.
Review: The tireless Jon Nedza once again dons his Gazeebo guise, this time for a remixed version of his Made In Mars mini-album.
There are three tracks from the original set under the remix knife 'Hyperspace Hotmix', 'Planet Boogie' and 'Red Eye To Saturn'with a pleasing variety of reworks on offer.
Contrast, for example, the electroboogie-era hip-hop vibes of DJ Raw Sugar's version of 'Hyperspace Hotmix' with Roctiv's two deep house-meets-electrofunk mixes of the same track.
While all of these rubs hit the mark, it's Trotter who delivers the stand-out remix, layering subtle scratches and hip-hop vocal samples over a laidback disco groove featuring live bass, pianos and clavinet chords.
Review: Disco mash-ups and edits aren't new.
However, that doesn't stop countless chancers riding the re-edit gravy train still to this day.
Gazeebo though, were there first and have the catalogue to prove it.
So much so in fact that it's taken a second compilation to capture all their gems.
Highlights of many on this 12 tracker include the bluesy electro-funk-rock jam that is 'Dis Go Zone', the prolonged climax of Frankie rework 'Gazeebo Goes To Hollywood' and the opinion ゲームを無料でダウンロード apologise jungle workout of 'Monkey Balls'.
There's life in the old disco dog yet!
Review: We've commented many times in the past about how, when it comes to re-edits and disco mash-ups, Gazeebo were there first and wore the t-shirt.
Well, if the previous two action-packed instalments in this, their retrospective series, wasn't enough, they've decided to drop a third!
So now we have a further 12 retro sizzlers to contend with including the dreamy Chic-esque 'Disco Forever', the Bee Gees-ripping 'I Love Me Some BJs' and the slightly unexpected and bonkers New York diva house of 'Kasual Reverb'.
Review: It's been 12 years since Community Recordings boss Jon Nedza started distributing high-grade disco edits to friends and fans under the Gazeebo pseudonym.
To celebrate, he's decided to launch a series featuring a mix of in-demand scalpel cuts and unreleased gems from the vaults.
For those seeking high quality disco remakes - especially of a dubby, largely instrumental persuasion, there's plenty to get excited about, from the Puerto Rican disco-funk madness of 'Latin Bandits' and string-drenched delights of Love Unlimited Orchestra rework 'Late Night Drop', to the smooth grooves of 'Scaredy Cat' and anthemic 'I Need It'.
Oh, and a brilliant dubwise take on Sylvester's 'Band of Gold' by pal Shawn Ryan.
Review: The best way to describe 'Last Night' or 'New Directions' by Canadian discomeister Gazeebo is like witnessing a soul night, circa 1983, in say, somewhere like Romford.
That's not even taking into consideration the dub versions, mind.
Monged out glamour, what more could we want.
Review: If giant steps are what you take, you need to check this out your ears around Gazeebo's undeniably dubby and spaced-out cover of The Police's 'Walking On The Moon'.
Becalmed, trippy and Balearic, iPad mini用の2プレーヤーゲーム Colarado producer's interpretation is generally pretty faithful to Sting and company's original, except for one significant difference.
With no lyrics or vocals present, the vocal melodies are instead played in chiming synthesizers.
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Rather than being a rip-snorting jungle revision, it's actually a sparse, jazzy and bass-heavy rhythm track.
Review: Another week, another Gazeebo release!
This time, the ever-productive disco crew turn their attention to the spacier end of the spectrum, offering an eight-track mini-album packed with sample-heavy nu-disco, electrofunk and boogie grooves.
Expect a variety of sharply dancefloor focused cuts, from the slo-mo, solar system bounce of 'Planet Boogie' kind of like Chicken Lips after a few too many spliffs to the 'everything but the kitchen sink' fun of 'Hyperspace Hotmix' via the midtempo Rhodes 'n' reverb plod of 'Red Eye To Saturn'.
Also included is a handy EFX DJ tool - all cosmic noises and alien electronics.
Review: If there is such a thing, Gazeebo's 'Adults Only' series is 'porno-disco'.
Certainly, there's a cheeky bent to proceedings - 'Suck My Photon' opens with a blast of orgasmic sampling, and there's a sweaty bump-and-grind to the sparkly nu-disco grooves that could certainly be described as dirty.
Faze Action don their Rudy's Midnight Machine guise for a fist-pumpin' rework that gets just the right balance between cheery campery and hip-shaking dancefloor pomp.
The money shot is provided by the Space Dub - a stripped-down version that retains the original's core dancefloor thrills.
Review: Longtime fans of Jon Nedza's Gazeebo productions can't help to have spotted his love of percussion; many of his edits and original productions are effectively glorified drum tracks.
This is not a criticism in any way, though; for disco DJs with a similar passion for percussion, Gazeebo tracks are must-haves.
He's at it again here, delivering two tracks built around bongo-laden live percussion.
While the original version of 'Mango Moon' - think dense percussion plus a few fuzzy guitars and decidedly spacey, cosmic synths - is excellent, the real killer is the alternative 'Drums in Space Mix', which strips the track back to the brilliant beats and a few well-timed cosmic sound effects.
Review: Some people aren't really fussed about celebrating their birthday and some other people really like to go all out for the occasion.
Gazeebo are most definitely in the latter category, with the past few months seeing an onslaught of retrospective comps to mark their 12th anniversary.
Here now is a fourth instalment and the nu-disco heat is still very on!
Highlights include the six-minute acid drum break odyssey, 'Boogie Monster' culled from Lets All Chantthe linear electro-funk of 'Meet The Beats' and the slightly camp, bouncy electro-disco of 'Take It There'.
Review: Gazeebo has always done a neat line in sparse, synth-heavy space disco.
Here, the veteran producer continues in this vein with 'Dark Lloyd', arguably one of his strongest releases for some time.
With its stripped back analogue synthesizers, delay-laden production and hypnotic groove, it sounds like vintage Chicken Lips or Emperor Machine with a dash of mid-80s New York proto-house.
Brilliantly, it also features a superb vocal breakdown, which adds a little surprise soulful flavour and adds a frisson of excitement.
There's little to the track, but the sparse elements combine beautifully.
Impressive stuff, all told.
Review: Romanian producer Razvan Ghenciu is going places in the nu-disco universe, having already released on the Los Grandes label, he now returns on Gazeebo International.
Perfectly suited to the label's woozy cosmic ethos, this EP is a collection of three exquisitely produced forays into the cosmos.
Review: Denver, Colorado-based Ejay Toledo has provided slo-mo house and disco lovers with some notable jams in recent times, with releases on Editorial, Audio Parallax and Aspect Audio.
Here he returns to Gazeebo International with an album's worth of atmospheric, head-nodding grooves.
There's much to admire, from the sparse, West Coast deep house of 'Burning' also available in cosy Heion remix form and dubby disco escapism of 'Fever', to the old skool US house bump of 'Moog Moods' and Rurals-ish 'InLove'.
There's a lovely bonus in the shape of a typically deep and groovy, synth-laden rework of 'InLove' from In The Woods regular Joseph Terruel, too.
Review: Having provided digital DJs with all manner of cut-and-paste escapades over the past couple of years, the Gazeebo label is moving towards original production.
This two-tracker from Hotbox lies somewhere between the two schools of thought.
On one hand, it bears all the hallmarks of the sample-heavy, slo-mo disco edit sound think Nicholas, Matthew Kyle, Andy Ash etc.
On the other, both tracks are clearly original deep house productions.
However you class 'Pitched Down Bound', the material is pretty strong - most notably the smoky, head-nodding delights of 'Marvin's Gangster Groove'.
Certainly, it's the best thing Gazeebo has released for years.
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Main article: is an important site discovered in 1974, which shows early evidence of farming and herding, and dentistry.
楽しいカジノのスロットゲームをプレイする site dates back to 7000—5500 and is located on the Kachi Plain of.
The residents of Mehrgarh lived in mud brick houses, stored grain in granaries, fashioned tools with, cultivated barley, wheat, and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle.
As the civilization progressed 5500—2600 BCE residents began to engage in crafts, including, bead production, and.
The site was occupied continuously until 2600 BCE, when climatic changes began to occur.
Between 2600 and 2000 BCE, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favor of the Indus Valley, where a was in the early stages of development.
The in the began around 3300 BCE with the Indus Valley Civilization.
Along with and, it was one of three early civilizations of the, and of the three the most widespread, covering an area of 1.
It flourished in the basins of the, in what is today the Pakistani provinces of, and, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal in parts of northwest India.
At its peak, the civilization hosted a population of approximately 5 million spread across hundreds of phonekyのレースゲーム extending as far as the to present-day southern and eastern, and the.
Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft carneol products, seal carvingand produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin.
The Mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, marking the beginning of urban civilisation in the Indus Valley.
The civilisation included urban centres such as, and as well as an offshoot called the 2500—2000 BCE in southern Balochistan and was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses.
It is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation as well.
During the of this civilisation, signs of a began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned.
However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived.
Of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward.
The civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE, though the reasons behind its fall are still unknown.
Through the excavation of the Indus cities and analysis of town planning and seals, it has been inferred that the Civilization had high level of sophistication in its town planning, arts, crafts, and trade.
The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with.
As Indo-Aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley, along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture.
The Indo-Aryans religious beliefs and practices from the and the native Harappan Indus beliefs of the former Indus Valley Civilisation eventually gave rise to Vedic culture and tribes.
The initial early Vedic culture was a tribal, society centered in the Indus Valley, of what is today Pakistan.
During this period the, the oldest of, were composed.
Several early tribes and kingdoms arose during this period and internecine military conflicts between these various tribes was common; as described in the, which was being composed at this time, the most notable of such conflicts was the.
This battle took place on the banks of the in the 14th century BC 1300 BCE.
In addition to the Vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the Sanskrit epics and are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.
The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the in archaeological contexts.
The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of as well as of movements including and which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy.
Around the beginning of the Common Era, the formed one of the main constituents of the so-called '.
Much of the area corresponding to modern-day Pakistan was subordinated to the Achaemenid Empire and forced to pay tributes to Persia The main Vedic tribes remaining in the by 550 BC were the Kamboja, Sindhu, Taksas of Gandhara, the Madras and Kathas of the, Mallas of the and Tugras of the.
These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom.
The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair.
King Pushkarasakti of was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the remained poorly defended.
Of the took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion.
The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor.
In 542 BC, Cyrus had led his army and conquered the Makran coast in southern.
However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of, and and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the.
In 518 BC, Darius led his army through the Khyber Pass and southwards in stages, eventually reaching the coast in Sindh by 516 BC.
Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time.
Gandhara Satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today.
During Achaemenid rule, the alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic the official language of Achaemenidsdeveloped here and remained the national script of Gandhara until 200 AD.
The satrapy was established in upper Punjab presumably in the region.
Arachosia was one of the larger provinces covering much of lower Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of modern-day Pakistan and Helmand province of what is today.
The inhabitants of Arachosia were referred to as Paktyans by ethnicity, and that name may have been in reference to the ethnic Pax̌tūn Pashtun tribes.
Sattagydia is mentioned for the first time in the of Darius the Great as one of the provinces in revolt while the king was in Babylon.
The revolt was presumably suppressed in 515 BC.
The satrapy disappears from sources after 480 BC, possibly being mentioned by another name or included with other regions.
It had been conquered much earlier by Cyrus The Great.
Despite all this, there is no archaeological evidence of Achaemenid control over these region as not a single archaeological site that can be positively identified with just click for source Achaemenid Empire has been found anywhere in Pakistan, including.
What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the Histories of and the later Alexander Chronicles Arrian, Strabo et al.
These sources list three Indus Valley tributaries or conquered territories that were subordinated to the Persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the Persian Kings: Gandhara, Sattagydia and Hindush.
Alexander's campaign in the Indus Valley.
In 328 BC, of and now the king of Persia, had conquered much of the former Satraps of the up to.
The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps.
In 327 BC, Alexander married a princess of the former iphone用hd無料ゲーム cement his relations with his new territories.
Now firmly under Macedonian rule, Alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley.
The rationale for the Indus campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought サムスンモバイルゲーム無料ダウンロードe2652のウェブサイト around the vicinity of the River Indus.
In the winter of 327 BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority.
By spring of 326 BC, Alexander began on his Indus expedition from Bactira, leaving behind 3500 horses and 10,000 soldiers.
He divided his army into two groups.
The larger force would enter the Indus Valley through the, just as Darius had done 200 years earlier, while a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander entered through a northern route, possibly through or near.
Alexander was commanding a group of shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the tribes of the former Gandhara satrapy.
The first tribe they encountered were the tribe of the, who initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart.
However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40,000 people were enslaved.
The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, Bazira and Massaga.
So enraged was Alexander about the resistance put up by the Assakenoi that he killed the entire population of Massaga and reduced its buildings to rubble - similar slaughters followed in Ora.
A similar slaughter then followed at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenoi.
The stories of these slaughters reached numerous Assakenians, who began fleeing to Aornos, a hill-fort located between and.
Alexander followed close behind their heels and besieged the strategic hill-fort, eventually capturing and destroying the fort and killing everyone inside.
The remaining smaller tribes either surrendered or like the tribe of were quickly neutralized where 38,000 soldiers and 230,000 oxen were captured by Alexander.
Eventually Alexander's smaller force would meet with the larger force which had come through the Khyber Pass met.
With the conquest of Gandhara complete, Alexander switched to strengthening his military supply line, which by now stretched dangerously vulnerable over the back to in Bactria.
After conquering Gandhara and solidifying his supply line back to Bactria, Alexander combined his forces with the King Ambhi of Taxila and crossed the River Indus in July 326 BC to begin the Archosia Punjab campaign.
His first resistance would come at the near against Visit web page of the tribe.
The famous between Alexander with Ambhi and Porus would be the last major battle fought by him.
After defeating, his battle weary troops refused to advance into India to engage the army of and its vanguard of trampling elephants.
Alexander, therefore proceeded southwest along the Indus Valley.
Along the way, he engaged in several battles with smaller kingdoms in and, before marching his army westward across learn more here desert towards what is now.
In crossing the desert, Alexander's army took enormous casualties from hunger and thirst, but fought no human enemy.
They encountered the 'Fish Eaters', or Ichthyophagi, primitive people who lived on the Makran coast, who had matted hair, no fire, no metal, no clothes, lived in huts made of whale bones, and ate raw seafood.
Alexander founded several new settlements in, and.
In 326 BC, he nominated and Taxiles as joint-Satraps until 323 BC when resigned leaving Taxiles as Satrap until 321 BC.
Porus of Jhelum then became Satrap of Punjab.
When Alexander died in 323 BCE, he left behind an expansive empire stretching from to the.
The empire was put under the authority of, and https://deposit-promocode-top-casinos.site/1/3108.html territories were divided among Alexander's generals thewho thereby became satraps of the new provinces.
However, the Satraps of the Indus Valley largely remained under the same leaders while conflicts were brewing in and.
Main article: Due to the internal conflicts of Alexanders generals, and his Brahmin counselor saw an opportunity to expand the Mauryan Empire from its Ganges Plain heartland in towards the Indus Valley between 325 BC to 303 BC.
At the same time, now ruler much of the Macedonian Empire was advancing from in order to establish his writ in the former Persian and Indus Valley provinces of Alexander.
During this period, Chandragupta's mercenaries may have assassinated Satrap of Punjab Philip.
They presumably also fought Eudemus, Porus and Taxiles of Punjab and Peithon of Sindh.
In 316 BC, both Eudemus and Peithon left Punjab and Sindh for Babylon, thus ending Macedonian rule.
The Mauryan Empire now controlled Punjab and Sindh.
As the expanded eastwards towards the Indus, it was becoming more difficult for Seleucus to assert control over the vast eastern domains.
Seleucus invaded Punjab in 305 BC, confronting Chandragupta Maurya.
It is said that Chandragupta fielded an army of 600,000 men and 9000 war elephants.
After two years of war, Seleucus reached an agreement with Chandragupta, in which he gave his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta and exchanged his eastern provinces go here a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which would play a decisive role at 301 BC.
Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across the empire thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security.
The empire was divided into four provinces, with the imperial capital.
From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals were Tosali in the eastern Ganges plainUjjain in the western Ganges plainSuvarnagiri in the Deccanand in the Indus Valley.
The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara royal princewho governed the provinces as king's representative.
The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers.
The empire also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge.
Mauryans were followers of and.
Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across the empire.
Following the demise of Chandragupta, Ashoka became Emperor who ruled between 268 BC — 232 BC.
Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings.
In 185 BC, the Shunga coup took place in which the emperor was killed, thus ending Mauryan rule.
The fall of the Mauryas left the unguarded, and a wave of invasions followed.
The king, Demetrius, capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered the Indus Valley in around 180 BC, forming the.
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom By the time Chandragupta's grandson had become emperor, was flourishing in the and much of the eastern Seleucid Empire.
In 250 BC, the eastern part of the Seleucid Empire broke away to form the by of.
Some of the Greeks apparently also converted to Buddhism during this period.
Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in.
Although Buddhism was flourishing, was resisting Buddhist advances in the and when Ashoka himself converted to Buddhism, he directed his efforts towards expanding the faith in the Indo-Iranian and Hellenistic worlds.
According to the, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, he sent Buddhist emissaries to the Greek lands in Asia and as far as the Mediterranean.
The edicts name each of the rulers of the world at the time.
The conquest by has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred 4,000 miles away, where the Greek king rules, beyond there where the four kings named, and rule, likewise in the south among the, the, and as far as.
Furthermore, according to sources, some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek-Buddhist monks, indicating close religious exchanges between the two cultures: When the thera elder Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror Ashokahad brought the third council to an end he sent forth theras, one here and one there: and to Aparantaka the 'Western countries' corresponding to and he sent the Greek named.
And the thera Maharakkhita he sent into the country of the Yona.
When Ashoka died in 232 BC, Mauryan hold on the Indus began weakening as was attempting to retake control of the Ganges heartland though the.
As such, the Mauryans began retreating out of the Indus back east towards Patna to protect the imperial capital.
This left most of the Indus Valley unguarded and most importantly left the open to invasion.
In 230 BC, overthrew Diodotus to establish himself as king.
The Greco-Bactrians were allied with the Mauryans 無料ゲームライブ壁紙 had kept close relations with Ashoka.
Following the collapse of the Mauryans, the first emperor of the is believed to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of that forced Buddhism outwards to, and.
Buddhist scripture such as the account of the and ancient Tibetan historian have written about persecution of Buddhists.
Pushyamitra is said to have burned down Buddhist monasteries, destroyed stupas, massacred Buddhist monks and put rewards on their heads, but some consider these stories as probable exaggerations.
The Shunga revolt was viewed as a persecution of Buddhists by Euthydemus.
Historians now suggest that the invasion was intended to show their support for the Mauryans and thus, the was established in 170 BC, in order to prevent the Shungas from advancing the Indus Valley.
Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
The Indo-Greek reigned 155—130 BCE drove the Greco-Bactrians out of and beyond the, becoming king shortly after his victory.
His territories covered and in modern Afghanistan and extended to the, with many tributaries to the south and east, possibly as far as.
The capital modern prospered greatly under Menander's rule and Menander is one of the few Bactrian kings mentioned by Greek authors.
The classical praises Menander, saying there was 'none equal to Milinda in all India'.
His empire survived him in a fragmented manner until the last independent Greek king, disappeared around 10 CE.
Around 125 BCE, the Greco-Bactrian king, son of Eucratides, fled from the invasion of Bactria and relocated to Gandhara, pushing the Indo-Greeks east of the.
The last known Indo-Greek ruler was, from the area of Gandhara, mentioned on a 1st-century CE signet ring, bearing the Kharoṣṭhī inscription 'Su Theodamasa' 'Su' was the Greek transliteration of the royal title 'Shau' ' or 'King'.
Various petty kings ruled into the early 1st century CE, until the conquests by the, and the Yuezhi, who founded the Kushan dynasty.
The, representing the surrounded by left and right was found inside a with coins of inside.
The were descended from the Scythians who migrated from southern into and from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE.
They displaced the Indo-Greeks and ruled a kingdom that stretched from Gandhara to.
The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Scythians were defeated by the south Indian Emperor of the.
Later the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by of the from eastern India in the 4th century.
Buddhist reliquary with content, including coins.
The was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty, named after its eponymous first ruler.
They ruled parts of present-day, and northwestern, during or check this out before the 1st century AD.
For most of their history, the leading Gondopharid kings held in the present province of as their residence, but during their last few years of existence the capital shifted between and.
Christian writings claim that the Apostle — an architect and skilled carpenter — had a long sojourn in the court of king, had built a palace for the king at and had also ordained leaders for the Church before leaving for in a chariot, for sailing out to eventually reach.
From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the, and a Buddhist monk.
The expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, about the middle of the 1st century CE.
They came of an Indo-European language speaking Central Asian tribe called the, a branch of which was known as the Kushans.
By the time of his grandson, the empire spread to encompass much of, and then the northern parts of the at least as far as and near Benares.
Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of; however, as Kushans expanded southward, the deities of their later coinage came to reflect its new majority.
They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China.
Historian said about Kanishka: He played the part of a second Ashoka in the history of Buddhism.
The empire linked the Indian Ocean maritime trade with the commerce of the through the Indus valley, encouraging long-distance trade, particularly between China and.
The Kushans brought new trends to the budding and blossoming, which reached its peak during Kushan Rule.
Rowlinson commented: The Kushan period is a fitting prelude to the Age of the Guptas.
By the 3rd century, their empire in India was disintegrating and their last known great emperor was.
Main article: The Gupta Empire existed approximately from 320 to 600 CE and covered much of the broad swathe of northern, including modern Excellent カジノの火死 something but excluding the southern peninsular region.
Founded by, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries.
The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architectures, sculptures and paintings.
Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.
Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in, and.
The empire gradually declined due in part to loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories, and from the invasion by the from Central Asia.
After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, South Asia was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms.
A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after phonekyのレースゲーム disintegration of the empire.
These Guptas were ultimately ousted by the Vardhana king, who established an empire in the first half of the 7th century.
Representing with a worshipper probably4th—6th century CE.
The inscription in cursive reads: ', and read more />The Indo-Hephthalites or Alchon Huns were a nomadic confederation in Central Asia during the late antiquity period.
The established themselves in modern-day Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century.
Led by the Phrase 500スロット無料でプレイリアルマネー commit military leader, they overran the northern region of Pakistan and North India.
Toramana's son, a Hindu, moved up to near to the east and to the central India.
Narrates Mihirakula's merciless persecution of Buddhists and destruction of monasteries, though the description is disputed as far as the authenticity is concerned.
The Huns https://deposit-promocode-top-casinos.site/1/3358.html defeated by alliance of Indian rulers, Great King of Malwa and Gupta Emperor in the 6th century.
Some of them were driven out of India and others were assimilated in the Indian society.
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661—750 Although soon after conquering the from the and the, Arab forces had reached the present western regions of Pakistan, during the period of, it was in 712 CE that a young Arab general called conquered most of the Indus region for the empire, to be made the 'As-Sindh' province with its capital at Al-Mansurah, 72 km 45 mi north of modern in.
But the instability of the empire and the defeat in various wars with north Indian and south Indian rulers including the, where the rulers like the south Indian Emperor of the and Nagabhata of the Dynasty defeated the Umayyad Arabs, they were contained till only Sindh and southern.
There was gradual conversion to in the south, especially amongst the native Hindu and Buddhist majority, but in areas north of, Hindus and Buddhists remained numerous.
By the end of the 10th century CE, the region was ruled by several kings who would be subdued by the.
Main article: The Kabul Shahi dynasties ruled the and modern-day Pakistan and from the decline of the in the 3rd century to the early 9th century.
The Shahis are generally split up into two eras: the Shahis and the Shahis, with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around 870.
The kingdom was known as the Kabul Shahan or Ratbelshahan from 565-670, when the capitals were located in and Kabul, and later, also known as Hund for its new capital.
The Hindu Shahis under, is known for his struggles in defending his kingdom against the in the modern-day eastern and region.
Jayapala saw a danger in the consolidation of the Ghaznavids and invaded their capital city of both in the reign of and in that of his son, which initiated the Ghaznavid and Shahi struggles.
Sebuk Tigin, however, defeated him, and he was forced to pay an indemnity.
Jayapala defaulted on the payment and took to the battlefield once more.
Jayapala however, lost control of the entire region between the and.
Before his struggle began Jaipal had raised a large army of Punjabi Hindus.
When Jaipal went to the, his phonekyのレースゲーム was raised to 100,000 horsemen and an innumerable host of foot soldiers.
According to: 'The two armies having met on the confines of, ascended a hill to view the forces of Jeipal, which appeared in extent like the boundless ocean, and in number like the ants or the locusts of the wilderness.
But Subooktugeen considered himself as a wolf about to attack a flock of sheep: calling, therefore, his chiefs article source, he encouraged them to glory, and issued to each his commands.
His soldiers, though few in number, were divided into squadrons of five hundred men each, which were directed to attack successively, one particular point of the Hindoo line, so that it might continually have to encounter fresh troops.
In the year 1001, soon after Sultan Mahmud came to power and was occupied with the north of the, Jaipal once more and upon suffering yet another defeat by the powerful Ghaznavid forces, near present-day.
After the, he committed suicide because his subjects thought he had brought disaster and disgrace to the Shahi dynasty.
Jayapala was succeeded by his son, who along with other succeeding generations of the Shahiya dynasty took part in various unsuccessful campaigns against the advancing Ghaznvids but were unsuccessful.
The Hindu rulers eventually exiled themselves to the Hills.
Main article: In 997 CE, the Turkic ruler, took over the empire established by his father, Sebuktegin, a Turkic origin ruler.
Starting from the city of now inMehmood conquered the bulk of, marched on against the in in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of 1007deposed the rulers of, 1011Kashmir 1015 and Qanoch 1017.
By the end of his reign in 1030, Mahmud's empire briefly extended from in the west to the river in the east, and the Ghaznavid dynasty lasted until 1187.
Contemporary historians such as and described extensive building work in, as well as Mahmud's support and patronage of learning, literature and the arts.
Mahmud's successors, known as the, ruled for 157 years.
Their kingdom gradually shrank in size, and was racked by bitter succession struggles.
The Hindu kingdoms of western India reconquered the, and by the 1160s, the line of demarcation between the Ghaznavid state and the Hindu kingdoms approximated to the present-day boundary between India and Pakistan.
The of central Afghanistan occupied around 1160, and the Ghaznavid capital was shifted to.
Later Muhammad Ghori conquered the Ghaznavid kingdom, occupying Lahore in 1187.
Main articles:, and In 1160, a ruler, conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids and became its governor in 1173.
He for the first time named Tambade Gatar roughly translated as the red passage.
He marched eastwards into the remaining Ghaznavid territory and Gujarat in the 1180s, but was rebuffed by Gujarat's Solanki rulers.
In 1186—87, he conquered Lahore, bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control and ending the Ghaznavid empire.
Muhammad Ghori's successors established the.
The Turkic origin, mamluk means 'owned' and referred to the Turkic youths bought and trained as soldiers who became rulers throughout the Islamic worldseized the throne of the Sultanate in 1211.
Several Central Asian Turkic and a Lodhi Pashtun dynasty ruled their empires from Delhi: the Mamluk 1211—90the 1290—1320the 1320—1413the 1414—1451 and the 1451—1526.
Although some kingdoms remained independent of Delhi — in, central Indiaand — almost all of the Indus plain came under the rule of these large sultanates.
The sultans emperors of Delhi enjoyed cordial relations サマセットpaの近くのカジノ rulers in the but owed them no allegiance.
While the sultans ruled from urban centers, their military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for many towns that sprang up in the countryside.
Close interaction with local populations led to cultural exchange and the resulting 'Indo-Islamic' fusion has left a lasting imprint and legacy in South Asian architecture, music, literature, life style and religious customs.
In addition, the language of literally meaning 'horde' or 'camp' in various Turkic dialects, but more likely 'city' in the South Asian context was born during the Delhi Sultanate period, as a result of the mingling of speakers of native, and languages.
Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating from the in the 13th century; nonetheless the sultans eventually lost and western Pakistan to the see the dynasty.
The Sultanate declined after the invasion of Emperor, who founded the, and was eventually conquered in 1526 by the Emperor.
The and later attracted,,,,,, and from the rest of the and they migrated and settled in the.
During the reign of 1266-1286 thousands of Muslims sought including more than 15 sovereigns and their nobles due to the.
At the court of パブスロットapk Delhi the first wave of these Muslim refugees escaping from the by the armies of, brought administrators from, painters from, theologians from, and, divines and saints from the rest of, craftsmen and men and maidens from every region, notably doctors adept in Greek medicine and philosophers from everywhere.
Main article: The Rajput replaced the Rajput Soomra dynasty.
They gained control of from the Soomra around 1335 A.
The dynasty is believed to have originated in, and later migrated to.
Thatta's prosperity was based partly on its own high-quality cotton and silk textile industry, partly on export of goods from further inland in the Punjab and northern India.
The Samma period contributed significantly to the evolution of the style.
Thatta is famous for its necropolis, which covers 10 square km on the.
Mughal Empire at its peak In 1526, a descendant of and from modern-dayswept across the and founded the, covering modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
The Mughals were descended from Central Asian with significant admixture.
However, his son was defeated by the Pashtun warrior who was from Bihar state of India, in the year 1540, and Humayun was forced to retreat to.
After Sher Shah died, his son became the ruler, on whose death his prime minister, Hemu ascended the throne and ruled North India from for one month.
He was defeated by Emperor 's forces in the on 6 November 1556.
He declared 'Amari' or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism and rolled back the tax imposed upon non-Islamic mainly Hindu people.
The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the South Asia by 1600.
The Mughal emperors married local royalty and allied themselves with local.
For a short time in the late 16th century, was the capital of the empire.
The architectural legacy of the Mughals in Lahore includes the built by the fifth Emperor, and the built by the sixth Emperor, who is regarded as the last Great as he expanded the domain to its zenith.
After his demise, different regions of modern Pakistan began asserting independence.
The empire went into a slow decline after 1707 and its last sovereign, ruling around region.
He was referred to as the ' Maharaja of Lahore'.
The 1799—1849 was formed on the foundations of the by who was proclaimed ' Sarkar-i-Khalsa', and was referred to as the 'Maharaja of Lahore'.
It consisted of a collection of autonomous, which were governed by Misldars, mainly in the.
The empire extended from the in the west, to in the north, to in the south and in the east.
The main geographical footprint of the empire was the Punjab region.
The formation of the empire was a watershed and represented formidable consolidation of Sikh military power and resurgence of local culture, which had been dominated for hundreds of years by Indo-Afghan and Indo-Mughal hybrid cultures.
The foundations of the Sikh Empire, during the time of the Punjabi Army, could be defined as early as 1707, starting from the death of.
The fall of the Mughal Empire provided opportunities for the Punjabi army to lead expeditions against the and.
This led to a growth of the army, which was split into different Punjabi armies and then semi-independent 'misls'.
Each of these component armies were known as a, each controlling different areas and cities.
However, in the period from 1762—1799, rulers of their misls appeared to be coming into their own.
The formal start of the Sikh Empire began with the disbandment of the by the time of coronation of in 1801, creating a unified political state.
All the misl leaders who were affiliated with the Army were from Punjab's nobility.
The entire territory of modern Pakistan was occupied beginning first by the — and continued under the post- direct rule of of the — through a series of wars, the main ones being the 1843 in, the gruelling 1845—1849 リアルマネーアプリを支払うスロット the 1839—1919to remain a part of until the independence in 1947.
The physical presence of the British was minimal; they employed ' political strategy to remain in power.
The administrative units of under the or the of either the or the lasted between 1612 and 1947.
Met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906.
The of 1909 called for separate Muslim electorates.
In 1885, the was founded as a forum, which later became a party, to promote a nationalist cause.
Although the Congress attempted to include the Muslim community in the struggle for independence from the - and some Muslims were very active in the Congress - the majority of Muslim leaders did not trust the party.
A turning point came in 1900, when the British administration in the acceded to Hindu demands and made, the version of the written in the script, the official language.
The conducted in the region by the of a new Hindu also stirred Muslim's concerns about their faith.
Eventually, the Muslims feared that the Hindu majority would seek to suppress the rights of Muslims in the region following the departure of the British.
The meeting was attended by three thousand delegates and presided over.
It addressed the issue of safeguarding interests of Muslims and finalised a programme.
A resolution, moved by and seconded.
Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk conservativedeclared: The Musalmans are only a fifth in number as compared with the total population of the country, and it is manifest that if at any remote period the British government ceases to exist in India, then the rule of India would pass into the hands of that community which is nearly four times as large as ourselves.
Our life, our property, our honour, and our faith will all be in great danger, when even now that a powerful British administration is protecting its subjects, we the Musalmans have to face most serious difficulties in safe-guarding our interests from the grasping hands of our neighbors.
The constitution and principles of the League were contained in the Green Book, written.
Its goals at this stage did not include establishing an independent Muslim state, but rather concentrated on protecting Muslim liberties and rights, promoting understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians, educating the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government, and discouraging violence.
However, several factors over the next thirty years, including sectarian violence, led to a re-evaluation of the League's aims.
Among those Muslims in the Congress who did not initially join the League was Jinnah, a prominent statesman and barrister in Bombay.
This was because the first article of the League's platform was 'To promote among the Mussalmans Muslims of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government'.
In 1907, a vocal group of Hindu hard-liners within the movement separated from it and started to pursue a pro-Hindu movement openly.
This group was spearheaded by the famous trio of - and of Punjab, Bombay and Bengal provinces respectively.
Their influence spread rapidly among other like minded Hindus - they called it - and it became a cause of serious concern for Muslims.
However, Jinnah did not join the League until 1913, when the party changed its platform to one of Indian independence, as a reaction against the British decision to reverse the, which the League regarded it as a betrayal of the Bengali Muslims.
After vociferous protests of the Hindu population and violence engineered by secret groups, such as and its offshoot of and his brother etc.
Till this stage, Jinnah believed in Mutual co-operation to achieve an independent, united 'India', although he argued that Muslims should be guaranteed one-third of the seats in any Indian Parliament.
Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal The League gradually became continue reading leading representative body of Indian Muslims.
Jinnah became its president in 1916, and negotiated the with the Congress leader, by which Congress conceded the principle of and weighted representation for the Muslim community.
However, Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, launched a law violating against the British, which a temperamentally law-abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of.
Jinnah also became convinced that the Congress would renounce its support for separate read more for Muslims, which indeed it did in 1928.
In 1927, the British proposed a constitution for India as recommended by the, but they failed to reconcile all parties.
The British then turned the matter over to the League and the Congress, and in 1928 an All-Parties Congress was convened in Delhi.
The attempt failed, but two more conferences were held, and at the Bombay conference in May, it was agreed that a small committee should work on the constitution.
The prominent Congress leader headed the committee, which included two Muslims, and; Motilal's son, Pt, was its secretary.
The League, however, rejected the committee's report, the so-called, arguing that its proposals gave too little representation one quarter to Muslims — the League had demanded at least one-third representation in the legislature.
Jinnah announced a 'parting of the ways' after reading the report, and relations between the Congress and the League began to sour.
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman seconding the Resolution with Jinnah and presiding the session The held in the had already weakened the leftist led.
Furthermore, the 's government was already weakened by the of the, which fueled new hopes for progress towards self-government in.
In fact, traveled to to press the idea of ' in British India, and claimed to represent all Indians whilst duly criticized the as being sectarian and divisive.
After reviewing the report of the, the initiated a massive under; the reserved their opinion on the declaring that the report was not final and the matters should decided after consultations with the leaders representing all communities in India.
As the leaders of the were jailed and restrained, the conference was held, but these achieved little, since Gandhi and the League were unable to reach a compromise.
Witnessing the events in the conference, had despaired of politics and particularly of getting mainstream parties like the Congress to be sensitive to minority priorities.
During this time in 1930, notable writer and poet, called for a separate and autonomous nation-state, who in his presidential address to the 1930 convention continue reading the Muslim League said that he felt that a separate Muslim state was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated South Asia.
Dream of and 's idealized the merger of the into a, called.
The name of the was coined by the 's student and Muslim, and was published on 28 January 1933 in the pamphlet.
After the publication of the pamphlet, the Hindu Press vehemently criticized it, and the word 'Pakstan' used in it.
Thus this word became a heated topic of debate.
With the addition of an 'i' to, the name of Pakistan grew in popularity and led to the commencement of the, and consequently the creation of.
In and languages, the name encapsulates the concept of Pak 'pure' and stan 'land' and hence a 'Pure Land'.
In 1935, the proposed to hand over to elected Indian provincial legislatures, with elections to be held in 1937.
After the elections the League took office in Bengal and Punjab, but the Congress won office in most of the other provinces, and refused to devolve power with the League in provinces with large Muslim minorities citing technical difficulties.
Meanwhile, Muslim ideologues for independence also felt vindicated by the presidential address of at the 19th session of the famous Hindu nationalist party in 1937.
In it, this legendary revolutionary - popularly called and known as the iconic father of the Hindu fundamentalist ideology - propounded the seminal ideas of his or ethnic exclusivism, which influenced Jinnah profoundly.
The meeting was also aimed at analyzing the reasons that led to the defeat of the Muslim League in the general election of 1937 in the Muslim majority provinces.
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The resolution was moved in the general session by Shere-Bangla nationalist, the Chief Minister of, supported by and other leaders and was adopted on 23 March 1940.
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While the Congress' top leadership had been in prison following the 1942 Quit India Movement, there was intense debate among Indian Muslims over the creation of a separate homeland.
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At the same time some Deobandi ulema such as Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Mufti Muhammad Shafi and Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani were supportive of the Muslim League's demand to create a separate Pakistan.
Muslims who were living in provinces where they were demographically a minority, such as the United Provinces where the Muslim League enjoyed popular support, were assured by Jinnah that they could remain in India, migrate to Pakistan or continue living in India but as Pakistani citizens.
The Muslim League had also proposed the hostage population theory.
According to this theory the safety of India's Muslim minority would be ensured by turning the Hindu minority in the proposed Pakistan into a 'hostage' population who would be visited by retributive violence if Muslims in India were harmed.
In the elections of 1946, the Muslim League won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims polling 89.
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The British had neither the will, nor the financial resources or military power, to hold India any longer but they were also determined to avoid partition and for this purpose they arranged the Cabinet Mission Plan.
According to this plan India would be kept united but would be heavily decentralized with separate groupings of Hindu and Muslim majority provinces.
The Muslim League accepted this plan as it contained the 'essence' of Pakistan but the Congress rejected it.
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The British Prime Minister Attlee appointed as India's last viceroy, to negotiate the independence of Pakistan and India and immediate British withdrawal.
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Main articles:,, and On 14 August 1947 27th of in 1366 of the Pakistan gained independence.
India gained independence the following day.
The two provinces of British India: Punjab and Bengal were divided along religious lines by the Radcliffe Commission.
Mountbatten is alleged to have influenced the Radcliffe Commission to draw the line in India's favour.
After this population exchange only a few thousand low-caste Hindus remained in Pakistan's side of Punjab and only a tiny Muslim population remained in the town of Malerkotla in India's part of Punjab.
Political scientist Ishtiaq Ahmed says that although Muslims started the violence in Punjab, by the end of 1947 more Muslims had been killed by Hindus and Sikhs in East Punjab than the number of Hindus and Sikhs who had been killed by Muslims in West Punjab.
More than ten million people migrated across the new borders and between 200,000-2,000,000 people died in the spate of communal violence in the Punjab in what some scholars have described as a 'retributive genocide' between the religions.
The Pakistani government claimed that 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and similarly the Indian government claimed that Muslims abducted and raped 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women.
The two governments agreed to repatriate abducted women and thousands of Hindu, Sikh and Muslim women were repatriated to their families in the 1950s.
The dispute over Kashmir escalated into the between and.
With the assistance of the UN the war but it became a hitherto unresolved.
Main article: On 12 March 1949, the second passed the which proclaimed that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah alone.
The promulgation of the in 1956 led to Pakistan declaring itself an official name with the adoption of a system of government.
The constitution transformed the into as.
Subsequently, became the first Bengali president in 1956, but the democratic system was stalled after President Mirza imposed a and appointed as an enforcer of martial law.
Two weeks later, President Mirza was ousted by Ayub Khan; his presidency saw an era of internal instability and a with India in 1965.
Economic grievances and political disenfranchisement in led to violent political tensions and armed repression, escalating into followed by the with India.
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Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which united under the banner of Nizam e Mustafa Rule of the Prophet and demanded the establishment of an Islamic state.
In 1977 Bhutto was deposed in a bloodless coup by Read article, who became the country's third military president.
Zia-ul-Haq committed himself to the establishment of in Pakistan.
With the of President Zia-ul-Haq in 1988, new saw the victory of PPP led by who was elevated as the country's first female.
Over the next decade, she alternated power with the conservative PML N led by, as the country's political and economic situation deteriorated.
Military tensions in the with India gamesテキサスホールデムポーカーダウンロード youda followed by yet another in 1999 in which General assumed executive powers.
Appointing himself President after the resignation of President, Musharraf held nationwide in 2002 to transfer the executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister, who was succeeded in the 2004.
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Backing tracks are also known as jam tracks.
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